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Mughals in India - Historical analysis and major details.

Updated: Dec 11, 2022

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The Mughal invasion of India began in 1526; Babur was the first emperor of the Indian Mughal Empire. His invasion started in Kabul, continued through Afghanistan, and finally reached India.

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After the victory of Panipat, most of the north India was occupied by Mughal forces. Babur came to India to fulfil his ambitions. Babur had 6 wives. Humayun was his eldest son with one of his wife Maham Begum. After Babur’s death at the age of 47, Humayun took over the Mughal Empire. He ruled from 1530 to 1540.

He took over entire Gujarat and Malwa after defeating Bahadur Shah. He defeated Mahmud Lodi in Battle of Dauhariya and compelled him to assent. Although, Sher shah Suri defeated

Humayun twice in the Battle of Chausa and Kannauj. Humayun was forced to leave India and live as a wanderer for 15years. He was also known as the weakest Mughal Emperor.

Here comes Akbar, The Third Mughal Emperor and son of Humayun. He was born in 1942 and was brought to Kabul during his father’s exile.

Humayun conquered afghan and took over the throne again in 1955. After 6months he died at the age of 47 in the year 1956.

Akbar was just 14 years old when his father died. He was announced as ‘Shahenshah’.Bairam Khan, the general of Mughal force became the ruler on behalf of Akbar.

“Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar is remembered as The Greatest of all the Mughal Emperors” He is known by the title Akbar-i-Aazm {the greatest}

Akbar, created the foundations on which it would stand for more than a century.

Mughal force moved to panipat where he faced Hemu’s army. Hemu’s army had 3000 horsemen and 1500 elephant, his force was much larger than akbar’s. However with the strategies of Bairam khan and execution of Hemu, Mughal Empire was established with more power than ever.

Sher Shah’s successor, Sikander Shah Sur was compelled to surrender in 1557. Muhammad Adil, another Afghan contender was killed in the same year. All this time Akbar expanded his empire throughout. Rajputana were the thread to Akbar. He conquered the Rajputana either by force or diplomatic strategies. Rana pratab was the last to fought Mughals till his last breath in the Battle of Haldighati in 1576. After his victory over Rajputana, Gujarat (1584), Kabul (1585), Kashmir (1586–87), Sindh (1591), Bengal (1592), and Kandahar (1595) were all added by Akbar to the Mughal domain. By 1595, the Mughal army under the command of General Mir Mausam had also conquered portions of Baluchistan near Quetta and Makran.

Akbar had 6 wives and 5 sons from different wives. Jahangir was the eldest son of Akbar and his Rajput wife Jodhabai {Mariam-uz-Zamani} was born in the year1569 and was next in line as fourth emperor of Mughal Empire. Jodha; the Princess of Ajmer married Akbar due to some political need.

"No marriage in medieval Indian history was, politically , so happy and fruitful, as the one contracted by Akbar with the daughter of Raja Bharmal of Amer in January 1562. It symbolized the dawn of a new era in Indian politics; it gave the country a line of remarkable sovereigns; it secured to four generations of Mughal Emperors the services of some of the greatest captains and diplomats that medieval India produced." — Historian B.P. Saxena, History of ShahJahan of Dehli (1932)

Conquering Aseergarh fort war was the last victory of Akbar. He died in 1605; at the age of 63. The Mughal Empire was succeeded by his son Nur-ud-din Salim Jahangir in 1605. Later salim had to stop his son, Khusrau Mirza. As he claimed the throne as per Akbar will and was defeated in the year 1606.

Jahangir was also famous for “golden chain of justice” To convey their complaints or petitions to the King, anyone in need of justice had to pull this chain. This deed is a powerful witness to the value of justice under his rule.

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The construction of Jahangirabad, which is still standing today and is now known as Dhaka, was one of the construction projects that the Emperor Jahangir was involved in. In addition, he is in charge of the Shalimar Bagh, a Mughal garden close to Srinagar. The garden was made by the emperor in memory of his favourite wife, Nur Jahan. He allowed the English to build a factory in Surat in 1613. Mughal painting reached a high level of elegance and richness during his reign. He died while travelling from Kashmir to Lahore in 1627.

His third son prince khurram took over the empire in 1628 and took the regal name Shah Jahan.

His reign is best known for the magnificent structures that were built, particularly the Taj Mahal, the Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque), in Agra, and the Jami Masjid and Red Fort in Delhi. He expanded the empire further and also builds the city known as Shahjahanabad.

He had 6 wives and 7 sons The four Mughal princes engaged in a desperate power struggle as a result of Emperor Shah Jahan's illness, with Dara Shukoh and Aurangzeb emerging as the top candidates. He challenged Aurangzeb for the Mughal Empire but was unsuccessful.

Aurangzeb became the next emperor of the Mughal Empire. He was born in the year 1618 He was also known as the cruelest king, at the age of 17 he started demolishing the temples and started building mosques.

He won the battles such as Battle of Dharmat by defeating the army of Shikoh, Battle of Khajuha. During this period of time; Maratha ruler Shivaji, Robbed the great port of Surat twice in the year 1664 and 1670. Using his great grandfather’s tactics, Aurangzeb defeated Shivaji. He also fought Sikhs and satnamis He died in the year 1707 at the age of 88.

Bahadur Shah took over the throne next and was born in year 1643;Muhammad Azam Shah, the eldest son of Aurangzeb's primary consort, declared himself the new emperor after his death but was quickly beaten by Bahadur Shah in the Battle of Jajau, one of the biggest conflicts in Indian history.

He ascended the throne at age of 63 in 1707 During his reign he also conquered Amber, Udaipur, and Jodhpur. He died in the year 1712 in Lahore. The throne was succeeded by his son Jahandar Shah in the year 1712. He only ruled for 9months till 1713; he was defeated in battle of Agra by his nephew Farrukhsiyar.

He granted a firman to the East India Company in1717, giving them access to Bengal's duty-free trade. East India Company imported goods without paying the custom duty to government.

Then many Mughal emperors came and gone. He died in the year 1719. As the time goes many Mughal emperors came but nobody has the same impact on the history as the first 6 emperors of Mughal Dynasty.

Bahadur Shah Zafar II was the last emperor of the mughals and died in the British prison in the year 1862. After this the empire was taken over by the Britishers.

Here comes the end of the Mighty Mughal Dynasty who ruled India for over 200 years.

(By our Member - Himanshi Upadhyay) (Get membership and feature your article. Check here)




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