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What is Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations? How Canada is failing to it?

The Canadian government has been seen as violative of the Vienna Convention when the Indian diplomats receive threats and hoardings citing their killings are openly put in Canada. In return Canada refer to this as freedom of speech and expression (God knows which books they read). But the altercation left no option for the Indian government but to stop issue of visas to Canadians to India due to inability of diplomats to work, as the government of Canada is supporting the terrorist (but in Israel they are able to see the terrorism clearly, hypocrisy.) and failing to provide security to the diplomats. Following which both the countries cited the Vienna Convention. Let's know of what Vienna Convention is?

What is the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations?

The Convention was adopted on 14th April 1961 by the United Nations Conference on Diplomatic Intercourse and Immunities held in Vienna, Austria. It entered into force on 24 April 1964. India has ratified the convention and nearly all countries have opted for it, except for Palau and South Sudan.

What actually this Convention means?

It provides special rules, privileges and immunities so the diplomatic missions could act without fear of coercion or harassment through enforcement of local laws and to communicate securely with their sending Governments. It provides exemptions from certain laws and taxes of the country in which they are posted.

Basically the Vienna Convention makes certain provisions for the diplomats of a nation to function effectively and do their duties.

The host country has to provide full security and immunity to the diplomats. The countries can also ensure equal number of diplomats in each others countries, depending on their understanding between the governments.

For example: Altercations between India and Canada lead to India asking tye Canadian government to withdraw the 41 diplomats in 2023 from India to maintain a parity in equal diplomatic strength between the countries because, Indian diplomats were receiving threats to life from terrorist living in Canada. Note: The Indian government step falls in line with Article 11.1 of the Vienna Convention.

The breach of diplomatic relations may occur in response to abuse of immunity or severe deterioration in relations between sending and receiving States. It affirms the concept of 'inviolability' of a diplomatic mission that is the reason this Convention is considered one of the enduring cornerstones of international diplomacy, and it is cited often by the leaders of the country.

The security of any High Commission or Embassy is the responsibility of the host nation. While diplomatic missions can also employ their own security, ultimately, the host nation is accountable for security.

What is High Commission or embassy?

There is no difference except for the nomenclature, the difference between high commission and embassy is basically where they are situated. Commission applies to Commonwealth member states (that is the nations which were colonised by British refer their diplomatic offices as High Commission among each other) whereas Embassy applies to the rest of the world. For example: India and Pakistan both were colony of Britain so they refer each others diplomatic office in their country as High Commission but in any other country such as China they will call it as embassy.


Canada has been sponsoring terrorism now as the PM of Canada openly supported a terrorist in its Parliament and also gave standing ovation to a Nazi veteran soldier who killed many. Sadly it shows the decline of the west as the values they say they respect, themselves aren't able to hold over it.



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