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Post 'Cold war' foreign policy of India

Updated: Oct 6, 2022

Indian foreign policy has been complex due to it's hostile neighbor and geography. We have such a large standing army despite not being such a rich nation due to our long border touching the Pakistan , China , Bangladesh and the Myanmar. Major changes in the policy are driven due to the breaking of USSR bringing cold war to an official end as per the scholars however it seems as if there is new kind of a cold war between three major powers now that is the USA, China and the Russia. So how did we shaped our policy after 1991, Many of you must have heard of LPG reforms that is the liberalization, privatization and the globalization. Let's see how it impacts us as citizens of India and the major shifts.

Major changes that India had were due to disintegration of the USSR, India was forced to make structural changes on both the domestic and external fronts as our most trusted ally was disintegrated and our Economy was in very bad shape (gulf war was going on and license raj was at it's peak) and the Globalization was knocking our doors. So what we could have done when as per sources at that time we were considering to sell our gold to run the country. We went to the IMF and with some conditions, we had to open our economy which flooded our market with foreign brands, that is the reason we are fond of imported things because our Industry wasn't strong enough and the west was pumping it's goods into India at large.



Three major pointers to understand this:

The Gujral doctrine, Manmohan doctrine and then the Modi doctrine(BJP).


Gujral doctrine - Shri IK Gujral gave 5 principle in which

  1. He does not ask for reciprocity from our neighbors for the help.

  2. No South Asia country should allow their territory to be use against India.

  3. No interference in the Internal affairs.

  4. Respect territorial integrity and the sovereignty.

  5. Any dispute might arise should be solved through the peaceful and bilateral negotiations.



Manmohan doctrine -

  1. Economic at the heart of the policies.

  2. Greater integration with the world economy for the benefit of India.

  3. India to work with International community to create global economic and security environment for all the nations.

  4. More focus on regional institutional capacity and regional connectivity.

Modi Doctrine -

  1. India first.

  2. Engage the competing global powers, that is why we hear Quad grouping (USA, Australia, Japan and India), then increasing engagement with Israel, Arabs and the Saudi - Iran as well.

  3. Lot of focus on the India diaspora, we have seen a lot of events he has conducted on foreign lands.

  4. Modi government in the foreign policy is known for Panchamrit.

    • Samman - Dignity and honor in the global politics.

    • Samvad - Greater engagement and dialogue.

    • Samriddhi - Shared prosperity.

    • Suraksha - Regional and global security

    • Sanskriti evam Sabhyata - That is the cultural and civilizational linkages.



Over all analyzing the policies of all these leaders , major big difference is the level of engagement which has increased recently and how, we have come upfront with our views rather than shying away from taking a stand. Russia - Ukraine war stand is also a diplomacy as the west beside supporting the Ukraine has let Russia demolish the whole country of Ukraine in front of their eyes and whole world saw the consequences so all in all the cold war hasn't ended yet , what seems form the scenario.


stay tuned for more.



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